Burke by the Numbers: Observations on Nine Decades of Scholarship on Burke

Clarke Rountree, University of Alabama in Huntsville

I recently oversaw an extensive updating of the widely available bibliography of secondary sources on Kenneth Burke for the Kenneth Burke Society, which sponsors KB Journal. The earlier bibliography was assembled by Dave Blakesley from several sources, including Bill Rueckert’s Critical Responses to Kenneth Burke, 1924-1966, Richard H. Thames’ bibliography in The Legacy of Kenneth Burke, and additional work by assistants working for Dave and me. This updated bibliography nearly doubles the number of sources of the original bibliography (from just over 800 to well over 1500), adding theses and dissertations on Burke, as well as essays and books retrieved through the wonderfully efficient electronic databases available today. Almost half of these entries now have abstracts as well.

As noted elsewhere in this issue of KB Journal, this new bibliography will be offered as premium content on this website for members of the Kenneth Burke Society. We do not draw the distinction lightly between what is free and what requires a membership and a password. Yet, the modest fee required to join the Society is no barrier to any serious Burke scholar who wishes to access this content, or the other premiums offered in the members-only area. (See our note on the new member’s area in this issue.) However, without the support of dues-paying members, we would not have the resources to provide such goodies. In any event, the bulk of KB Journal will remain freely available to everyone.

This essay offers some reflections on the new bibliography, whose incorporation into a robust database has allowed me to search, sort, and extract a few interesting facts and figures about secondary work on Burke. Now I’ll be the first to admit that I’m not much with figures—I’m rhetorician through and through, almost allergic to what my counterparts on the social science side of the communication studies house talk about. Nevertheless, I must admit that numbers can sometimes offer their own insights. So, I offer this essay to give readers a glimpse into what we’ve been pulling from the Burke mines during the past few months.

The Big Picture

My goal in this update was to be over inclusive, rather than under inclusive. This has led me to include some sources that are not singularly focused on Burke or his ideas, but incorporate a discussion or use of Burke or his ideas in substantial ways. My research team typically used keyword or subject term searches to find sources. If there was a question about the significance of the Burke content, I made a quick review of the source. So, for example, I included a book edited by communication scholar Michael J. Hyde on The Ethos of Rhetoric, not because any single essay discusses Burke at length, but because Burke is referenced on about 15% of the volume’s pages.

On the other hand, works which simply cite Burke did not pass the test—that would lead to a bibliography in the tens of thousands. So, for example, I did not include one of the most unusual uses of Burke in an opening excerpt to a computer science essay on pattern matching published in Computational Intelligence journal, quoting Burke:

When a philosopher invents a new approach to reality, he promptly finds that his predecessors saw something as a unit which he can subdivide, or that they accepted distinctions which his system can name as unities. The universe would appear to be something like a cheese; it can be sliced in an infinite number of ways—and when one has chosen his own pattern of slicing, he finds that the other[’s] cuts fall at the wrong places. (Levinson and Fuchs qtg. Burke from Klir)

Likewise, I could not include Maynard Solomon’s passing quotation of Burke in analyzing Beethoven’s “Diabelli” Variations as a sort of Empsonian pastoral (though such references to Burke in music criticism are rare). And Donna R. Techau’s reliance on Burke’s discussion of the etymology of the word define in discussing marriage for Liturgy journal is just too brief for inclusion, however interesting.

Nonetheless, I have attempted to be exhaustive in this bibliography, though there inevitably will be sources I have missed. (If KB Journal readers know of published sources on Burke not included, please send them to me or other KB Journal editors.) For example, book chapters and encyclopedia or dictionary entries are less well represented in databases than other kinds of sources. Electronic databases are less likely to have older materials (assuming some sources were not picked up by Rueckert or others in earlier bibliographies). Some minor publications are not in databases, such as many state journals in communication. (I included my own publication in a state journal because I knew about it; if you have some, please send them to me.)

Given these caveats on my attempt to exhaust the literature, as of this writing the total number of secondary sources on Burke is 1537. These include the following sources:

Type of Source Number of Sources
Journal Essays 728
Theses & Dissertations 444
Books 162
Book Sections 146
Magazine/News Articles 54
Reference Entry 1
Videotape 1
Website 1

Ignoring distinctions between different types of sources (whereby a book and a book review both count as “one”), it is notable that something was published about Burke every year since 1924, with the exceptions of 1930, 1940, 1943, and 1944. This tradition of works about Burke began with a slow trickle that turned into a torrent by the 1980s. Below are the numbers of sources about Burke published during the decades since the 1920s. Obviously, our own decade, already beating six of the other eight decades covered, has yet to be completed.

Decade Works on Burke
1920s 8
1930s 36
1940s 34
1950s 50
1960s 82
1970s 119
1980s 400
1990s 490
2000s 321

In the next section, I review these decades briefly, mostly sticking to my number-driven terministic screen in highlighting “major” Burke scholars, which I define quantitatively (and arbitrarily) as those who have published at least five works about Burke. However, I drop this standard in discussing major book authors and those, such as Fredric Jameson, who have contributed to notable moments in Burke scholarship.

Decades of Burke Scholarship

Most of the secondary works on Burke from the 1920s to 1940s are book reviews; fifty-eight of seventy-eight essays are explicitly focused on reviewing a particular book by Burke. By the 1950s, the first dissertations and books on Burke began appearing, as well as theoretical and critical essays. Importantly, in a 1950 review of A Rhetoric of Motives (Ehninger), the speech communication field discovered Burke and began its six-decade love affair with him. By the 1960s, social scientists had discovered Burke, including sociologist Hugh Dalziel Duncan and political scientist Murray Edelman. The interest of literary scholars continued, notably, that of Bill Rueckert, who began building upon his 1956 dissertation on Burke in publishing the first edition of Kenneth Burke and the Drama of Human Relations, as well as Critical Responses to Kenneth Burke, 1924-1966. Communication scholars Jim Chesebro and the late Leland Griffin published their first essays on Burke.

By the 1970s, interest in Burke spread across the academy. Joseph Gusfield and Michael Overington joined Duncan from sociology. Hayden White began drawing upon Burke for history. Wayne C. Booth, Harold Bloom, Tim Crusius, Michael Feehan, Stanley Edgar Hyman, Don Jennerman, Rene Wellek, and others took up Burke for literary studies. Rising stars from communication offered their first Burke essays, including Jane Blankenship, Barry Brummett, Richard Gregg, Bob Heath, Bob Ivie, and Phil Tompkins. Bernie Brock and Robert L. Scott published a widely-read textbook in rhetorical criticism that featured a chapter on Burkean criticism. The relatively new journal, Philosophy & Rhetoric, featured five articles about Burke (Abbott; Ambrester; Blankenship, Murphy, and Rosenwasser; Melia; and Pedigrew), drawing philosophers’ attention to his work. Recherches anglaises et americaines, a French journal of English and American culture, literature, and art (now defunct), published a special issue on Burke in 1979 (Susini). Notable exchanges occurred between Burke and Wilbur Samuel Howell, then Burke and Fredric Jameson.

In the 1980s more Burke scholarship was published than in all six previous decades combined. The first Kenneth Burke conference was in Philadelphia in 1984 and the Kenneth Burke Society was formed shortly afterward. Many more scholars—especially from communication, literature, and composition—looked to Burke for insights. In addition to those mentioned from previous decades, another wave of communication scholars published for the first time on Burke, including Ed Appel, Cheree Carlson, Phyllis Japp, Paul Jay, Andy King, Mark Moore, Clarke Rountree, Richard Thames, and David Cratis Williams. Literary scholars publishing on Burke included Rick Coe, Greig Henderson, Tilly Warnock, Bob Wess, and W. Ross Winterowd. The Department of Communication Studies at the University of Iowa produced an eight-hour series of videotaped interviews with Burke (Conversations with Kenneth Burke).

Kenneth Burke died in 1993, but interest in his work grew throughout the 1990s in both size and intensity. In 1992 Celeste Condit published an essay in The Quarterly Journal of Speech suggesting that perhaps it was time for rhetorical scholars to go post-Burke (as feminists have gone “post-feminist”), sparking a heated exchange with Phil Tompkins and George Cheney. Chesebro added his own ideas for extending Burke’s system in an article in the same journal (“Extensions”). This intense exploration of Burke’s ideas is emblematic of the 1990s, which has become the most prolific decade for works about Burke (though the 2000s are close behind already). Forty Burke-related books were published during the decade, including three collections from Burke conferences (Chesebro, Extensions of the Burkeian System; Brock, Kenneth Burke and Contemporary European Thought; Brock, Kenneth Burke and the 21st Century) and Barry Brummett’s Landmark Essays on Kenneth Burke. Books by Barbara Biesecker, Crusius, and Wess put Burke into conversation with postmodernism. Jack Selzer’s book on Burke in Greenwich Village provided insight into the intellectual environment that fueled Burke’s thought. Chris Carter devoted a book to Burke’s notion of scapegoating. Martin Behr published a book on Burke’s thought and a second, with Rick Coe, on Burke and composition. British scholar Stephen Bygrave offered a volume on Burke and ideology. Indian scholar Satish Gupta published a book on Burke’s literary theory. Stan Lindsey offered a study of Burke and Aristotle. And Bill Rueckert offered perhaps his most mature assessment of Burke in Encounters with Kenneth Burke. This fervor over Burke was reflected in graduate schools, which produced over 180 theses and dissertations on Burke during the decade.

The 2000s have begun with a bang for Burke studies. Twenty-five Burke-related books have appeared, with two more scheduled for publication this year. Three volumes include Burke’s work with that of his colleagues and commentators: Burke’s exchange of letters with William Carlos Williams (East), his correspondence with Bill Rueckert (Rueckert, Letters), and an edited volume by Greig Henderson and David Cratis Williams, Unending Conversations, which includes unpublished work of Burke’s, as well as recent and past publications by notable Burke commentators. Ross Wolin took on the massive task of resituating Burke’s eight major theoretical works within their social and political contexts in The Rhetorical Imagination of Kenneth Burke. Rhetorical critics applied Burke to several book-length works: David Bobbitt took on Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech, Camille Lewis looked at Bob Jones University’s discourse of religious fundamentalism, Stan Lindsey used “representative anecdote” to unpack the Book of Revelations, and Clarke Rountree used the pentad to explore constructions of court motives in the election-ending case of Bush v. Gore. British scholar Laurence Coupe followed on a 1990s book on myth with a 2004 book examining Kenneth Burke on Myth. Greg Clark used Burke to explore the practices of American tourism. Beth Eddy considered identity in Burke and Ellison. Robert Garlitz used logology to shed light on literary criticism. Books by Dave Blakesley, by Mark Huglen and Basil Clark, and by John D. Ramage used Burke to teach rhetorical theory to students. Stan Lindsay published his concordance to Burke’s work. Almost one hundred theses and dissertations have been completed so far in the 2000s. Finally, KB Journal, the first journal devoted exclusively to the study of Burke and his ideas, was launched in 2004 by Huglen, Rountree, and Blakesley (and soon adopted by the Kenneth Burke Society) and has quickly become the leading publisher of journal essays on Burke for the decade, with 34 of 178 entries.

Notable Firsts

The first essays about Burke appeared in reviews of The White Oxen in 1924. The database lists the first specifically dated review as 11 October 1924, by Gorham Munson in The Literary Review (“An Amazing Debut”), with The New York Times’ anonymous book review coming almost two weeks later (“Psychological Drama”). Matthew Josephson reviewed on November 16th for The New York Herald Tribune. Malcolm Cowley’s review for The Dial is dated as 1924, with no month listed.

Gorham Munson also appears to have written the first book chapter on Kenneth Burke in 1928: "In and About the Workshop of Kenneth Burke" in Destinations; a Canvass of American Literature since 1900. Burke received notice in various books on criticism from the 1930s and 1940s, though the first full-length book devoted exclusively and explicitly to Burke would come in 1957, with George Knox’s Critical Moments: Kenneth Burke’s Categories and Critiques.

Knox is also credited with completing the first dissertation focused on Burke, “Kenneth Burke as Literary Theorist and Critic,” at the University of Washington in 1953. Other notable, early, dissertations include, Virginia Holland’s “Aristotelianism in the Rhetorical Theory of Kenneth Burke,” completed in 1954 at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Bill Rueckert’s 1956 University of Michigan dissertation, “The Rhetoric of Rebirth: a Study of the Literary Theory and Critical Practice of Kenneth Burke.” The first dissertation outside of literature and speech was Frederic Lionel Diamond’s “Murder in Toronto: A Ten Year Study: 1966-1976,” completed in 1979 at York University in Canada.

Disciplinary Interests

I am currently editing a series for KB Journal entitled “Burke in the Fields.” For this series I have recruited top Burke scholars in various fields to write about the uses of Burke in their particular disciplinary homes. This began with a review of Burke in communication studies by Barry Brummett and Anna M. Young. Reviews currently in the works will look at Burke and composition studies, literary studies, the social sciences, and international scholarship. Those in-depth reviews will be qualitative, but here I simply want to make gross numerical observations about Burke’s importance to various fields. The shortest route to that is to look at the journals publishing work about Burke and his ideas.

Works about Burke and his ideas have been published in 324 different journals (including a few high-brow magazines). The largest number of these journals come from literary studies, with an astonishing 100 different titles publishing Burke-related work. By contrast, communication studies has featured works about Burke in only 38 different journals (though, notably, we have far fewer journals in our discipline). Interdisciplinary journals in rhetoric (such as Philosophy & Rhetoric, Pre/Text, Rhetoric Society Quarterly, and Rhetorica), in the arts and sciences (e.g., Bucknell Review), and in the humanities (e.g., Angelika) feature Burke in 20 different titles. Seventeen general interest journals or magazines (such as The Nation and The American Scholar) and sixteen sociology journals discuss Burke. You can find Burke studies in about a dozen journals each in composition studies, cultural studies, and religion. Beyond that, journals in American studies, anthropology, art, business, education, history, linguistics, philosophy, political science, and science feature Burke in journals numbering in the single digits.

When you examine the numbers of works published in each field, the dominance of literary studies is displaced by communication studies, where 226 essays have been published, compared to 179 essays in literary studies. However, the interdisciplinary journals in rhetoric include enough territory for either communication or literary scholars to argue over dominance, with 157 essays. Composition studies, sociology, and general interest periodicals are closely tied for third place at about 30 essays each. Linguistics and religion have about a dozen apiece, followed by single digits for all the other areas I have mentioned.

The greatest single disseminator of Burke’s ideas through secondary literature has been The Quarterly Journal of Speech, which boasts 77 essays on Burke-related issues. Second in line is KB Journal, whose singular focus on Burke has yielded 34 sources in three years. Rhetoric Review and Western Journal of Communication include 28 essays. Another regional communication journal, Communication Quarterly boasts two dozen essays. Rhetoric Society Quarterly offers a respectable twenty. The greatest champion of Burke studies in the balkanized arena of literary studies is American Literature with twelve.

Altogether, the journals traditionally associated with the “speech” and “English” disciplines—including rhetoric, composition, and literature—account for almost ninety percent of all journal articles in Burke scholarship. Obviously, the interest of both fields in rhetoric in the broadest sense—perhaps the focus of Burke’s most significant contributions—explains why the greatest number of scholars drawing on Burke come from these fields.

Naming Names

In reviewing Burke scholarship through the decades, I already have identified many “major” Burke scholars. (To those who have done important work that fell short of my five-work standard, let me plead my stalwart adherence to the number-driven terministic screen that overlooks quality.) Nevertheless, it is worth taking note of those scholars who have been most prolific in Burke studies.

Bill Rueckert, the late “Dean” of Burke studies, leads the pack with 15 works spanning fifty years, from his 1956 dissertation to an essay published in KB Journal just last year. Two scholars are credited with 14 works on Burke: the late Bernie Brock and Dave Blakesley. Bernie’s 1965 dissertation drew upon Burke in discussing political communication (“A Definition”), beginning five decades of work on Burke, including editing two volumes from Triennial Burke conferences. Dave Blakesley, whose primary scholarship is in rhetoric and composition, has made his mark much more recently and more quickly. His tireless efforts to support Burke scholarship include the development and maintenance of two major websites (his “Virtual Parlor” and this journal’s website), the founding and oversight of Parlor Press, which has published several Burke-related books; his own book on dramatism, and a just-published volume of Burke’s poems he edited with Julie Whitaker, as well as bibliographies, articles, and book reviews. Jim Chesebro, who drew upon Burke for his work in communication studies for decades, follows closely with 13. Bob Wess and Clarke Rountree are tied at a dozen each. Tim Crusius ties Hugh Duncan at 11 (though Duncan gets credit for multiple publications of two books). Greig Henderson of literary studies and Barry Brummett of communication studies are tied at 10. Mark P. Moore and Phil Tompkins have nine each, while Ed Appel, Michael Feehan, and Paul Jay come in with eight apiece. Bryan Crable and Mark Huglen have seven. Rick Coe, Malcolm Cowley, Bob Heath, Richard Thames, Tilly Warnock, David Cratis Williams, and W. Ross Winterowd have a half-dozen each. Scholars with five Burke-related works include Cheree Carlson, Chris Carter, Laurence Coupe, Bernard Duffey, Bob Ivie, Phyllis Japp, Don Jennerman, Stan Lindsay, and Jeffrey Murray.

This list of prolific Burke scholars is dominated by men. I’ll leave it to other scholars to explain this (though perhaps Celeste Condit would contend that we need to go post-Burke to feminize our scholarship). Only Tilly Warnock, Cheree Carlson, and Phyllis Japp meet my “major scholar” benchmark of five or more Burke-related publications. However, the future looks a bit brighter, with young scholars including Debra Hawhee (named top new Burke scholar at the 2005 Triennial Burke conference), Ann George (with four publications in the 2000s), and Kathleen M. Vandenberg (with two in 2005), making headway. Also coming on strong this decade are Blakesley, with eight publications in the 2000s, Mark Huglen with seven, Bryan Crable with six, and Greg Clark, Jeffrey Murray, and Dana Anderson with three each. These young scholars represent the future of Burke studies and of KB Journal.

On the other hand, we don’t want to forget the contributions of those legions of scholars who dabble in Burke, enriching their own particular scholarly projects when Burke offers something particular they seek. And there are many such scholars—the mode (to use one of those statistical references) for number of publications by an individual scholar in Burke studies is a solid “one.” Roughly a thousand different scholars have published a single work about Burke.


It is the nature of quantitative measures to grossly simplify the complex. That is a great advantage for looking across nine decades of work on Burke and saying something informative and interesting. I hope this introduction to the new bibliography has intrigued you, despite the limitations of its numerical bias. I believe this brief review demonstrates at least three things: (1) that Burke studies is strong and growing, (2) that “speech” and “English” have supplied and continue to supply the largest number of Burke scholars and publication outlets (though scholars from a dozen fields have found him useful), and (3) that lots of scholars dabble in Burke while a handful have devoted much of their scholarly lives to his work. This essay is a tip of the hat to the devotees, both young and old.

For the convenience of Burke scholars who want to join (or rejoin) the Kenneth Burke Society and delve more deeply into the updated bibliography I drew upon for this essay, the following configurations of this bibliography are provided in the new Members area of this journal:

All Sources
• With Abstracts (by author)
• By author
• By date
• By title
• By author
• By date
• By book title
Journal Articles
• By author
• By date
• By article title
• By journal (then date)
Theses and Dissertations
• By author
• By date
Book Reviews
• By book title
• By author
• By date

Works Cited

Abbott, Don Paul. "Marxist Influences on the Rhetorical Theory of Kenneth Burke." Philosophy & Rhetoric 7 (1974): 217-33.

Ambrester, Roy. "Identification Within: Kenneth Burke's View of the Unconscious." Philosophy and Rhetoric 7 (1974): 205-16.

Appel, Edward C. "The Tragic-Symbol Preaching of the Rev. Dr. Wallace E. Fisher." Journal of Communication and Religion 10 (1987): 34-43.

Behr, Martin, and Richard M. Coe. Critical Moments in the Rhetoric of Kenneth Burke: Implications for Composition. Winnipeg, Man.: Inkshed Publications, 1996.

---. Continuity and Change in the Thought of Kenneth Burke. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1992.

Biesecker, Barbara A. Addressing Postmodernity : Kenneth Burke, Rhetoric, and a Theory of Social Change. Studies in Rhetoric and Communication. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997.

Blakesley, David. The Elements of Dramatism. Boston: Longman, 2002.

Blankenship, Jane, Edwin Murphy, and Marie Rosenwasser. "Pivotal Terms in the Early Works of Kenneth Burke." Philosophy and Rhetoric 7.1 (1974): 1-24.

Bloom, Harold. A Map of Misreading. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.

Bobbitt, David A. The Rhetoric of Redemption: Kenneth Burke’s Redemption Drama and Martin Luther King, Jr.’s "I Have a Dream Speech". Communication, Media, and Politics Series. New York: Roman & Littlefield, 2004.

Booth, Wayne C. "Kenneth Burke's Way of Knowing." Critical Inquiry 1 (1974): 1-22.

Brock, Bernard Lee. "A Definition of Four Political Positions and a Description of Their Rhetorical Characteristics." Dissertation. Northwestern University, 1965.

---, ed. Kenneth Burke and Contemporary European Thought : Rhetoric in Transition. Studies in Rhetoric and Communication. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995.

---, ed. Kenneth Burke and the 21st Century. Albany: State U of New York P, 1999.

Brock, Bernard L. and Robert L.Scott. Methods of Rhetorical Criticism. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

Brown, Merle Elliott. Kenneth Burke. University of Minnesota Pamphlets on American Writers. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1969.

Brummett, Barry. Landmark Essays on Kenneth Burke. Davis, CA: Hermagoras P, 1993.

Brummett, Barry. "Presidential Substance: The Address of August 15, 1973." Western Journal of Communication 39 (1975): 249-59.

---, and Anna M. Young. "Burke in the Fields: Some Uses of Burke in Communication Studies." KB Journal 2.2 (2006).

Burke, Kenneth. Late Poems 1968-1993. Ed. Julie Whitaker and David Blakesley. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2005.

Bygrave, Stephen. Kenneth Burke: Rhetoric and Ideology. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Camtwell, Robert. "Second Person Singular." Rev. of Towards a Better Life by Kenneth Burke. The Nation 9 March 1932: 289.

Carlson, A. Cheree. "Gandhi and the Comic Frame: Ad Bellum Purificandum." The Quarterly Journal of Speech 72 (1986): 446-55.

Carter, Chris Allen. Kenneth Burke and the Scapegoat Process. Oklahoma Project for Discourse and Theory. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Chamberlain, John. "Mr. Burke's Experiment in the Novel." Rev. of Towards a Better Life by Kenneth Burke. The New York Times Book Review 31 January 1932: 2.

Chesebro, James W. "A Construct for Assessing Ethics in Communication." Central States Speech Journal 20 (1969): 104-14.

---. "Extensions of the Burkeian System." The Quarterly Journal of Speech 78.3 (1992): 356-68.

---. Extensions of the Burkeian System. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1993.

Clark, Gregory. Rhetorical Landscapes in America: Variations on a Theme from Kenneth Burke. Studies in Rhetoric/Communication. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Coe, Richard M. "It Takes Capital to Defeat Dracula: A New Rhetorical Essay." College English 49 (1986): 231-42.

Condit, Celeste. "Post Burke: Transcending the Sub-Stance of Dramatism in the Forum: Burke Revisited and Revised." The Quarterly Journal of Speech 78.3 (1992): 349-55.

Conversations with Kenneth Burke. Eds. Clarke Rountree and Judy Smith. University of Iowa Department of Communication Studies, Iowa City, IA, 1987.

Coupe, Laurence. Kenneth Burke on Myth: An Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Cowley, Malcolm. "Gulliver." Rev. of The White Oxen by Kenneth Burke. The Dial 77 (1924): 520-22.

Crusius, Timothy W. Kenneth Burke and the Conversation after Philosophy. Rhetorical Philosophy and Theory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.

Crusius, Timothy W. "Kenneth Burke's Theory of Form in Rhetorical Interpretation." Recherches anglaises et americaines 12 (1979): 82-97.

Diamond, Frederic Lionel. "Murder in Toronto: A Ten Year Study: 1966-1976." DAI 43.05A (1979): 01.

Duncan, Hugh D. Symbols and Social Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

East, James H., ed. The Humane Particulars: The Collected Letters of William Carlos Williams and Kenneth Burke. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2003.

Edelman, Murray J. The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1964.

Eddy, Beth. The Rites of Identity: The Religious Naturalism and Cultural Criticism of Kenneth Burke and Ralph Ellison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Ehinger, Douglas. Rev. of A Rhetoric of Motives by Kenneth Burke. The Quarterly Journal of Speech 36 (1950): 557-58.

Feehan, Michael. "Kenneth Burke's Discovery of Dramatism." The Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (1979): 405-11.

Frank, Armin Paul. Kenneth Burke. New York,: Twayne Publishers, 1969.

Garlitz, Robert. Kenneth Burke's Logology and Literary Criticism. Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2004.

Grattan, C. Hartley. "A Novel Not a Novel." Rev. of Towards a Better Life by Kenneth Burke. The Saturday Review of Literature 19 March 1932: 604.

Gregg, Richard B. "Kenneth Burke's Prolegomena to the Study of the Rhetoric of Form." Communication Quarterly 26 (1978): 3-13.

Gregory, Horace. "The Man on the Park Bench." Rev. of Towards a Better Life by Kenneth Burke. The New York Herald Tribune Books 31 January 1932: 2.

Griffin, Leland M. "A Dramatistic Theory of the Rhetoric of Movements." Critical Responses to Kenneth Burke, 1924-1966. Ed. William H. Rueckert. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 1969. 456-78.

---. "The Rhetorical Structure of the 'New Left' Movement, Part One." The Quarterly Journal of Speech 50 (1964): 113-35.

Gupta, Satish. Kenneth Burke's Literary Theory. New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1995.

Gusfield, Joseph R. "The Literary Rhetoric of Science: Comedy and Pathos in Drinking Driver Research." American Sociological Review 4 (1976): 16-34.

Hazlitt, Henry. "Two Critics." Rev. of Counter-Statement by Kenneth Burke. The Nation 1932: 77.

Heath, Robert L. "Kenneth Burke on Form." The Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (1979): 392-404.

Henderson, Greig E. Kenneth Burke: Literature and Language as Symbolic Action. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

Henderson, Greig E., and David Cratis Williams. Unending Conversations : New Writings by and About Kenneth Burke. Rhetorical Philosophy and Theory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2001.

Holland, Laura Virginia. "Aristotelianism in the Rhetorical Theory of Kenneth Burke." DAI 15.01 (1954): 146.

Howell, Wilbur Samuel. "The Two-Party Line: A Reply to Kenneth Burke." Quarterly Journal of Speech 62 (1976): 69-77.

Huglen, Mark E., and Basil B. Clark. Poetic Healing: A Vietnam Veteran's Journey from a Communication Perspective. revised ed. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press, 2005.

Hyde, Michael J. The Ethos of Rhetoric. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Hyman, Stanley Edgar. "Kenneth Burke and the Criticism of Symbolic Action." The Armed Vision: A Study in the Methods of Modern Literary Criticism. Rev. ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1955. 327-85.

Ivie, Robert L. "Presidential Motives for War." The Quarterly Journal of Speech 60.3 (1974): 337-45.

Jameson, Frederic R. "Critical Response: Ideology and Symbolic Action." Critical Inquiry 5.2 (1978): 417-22.

Japp, Phyllis M. "A Spoonful of Sugar Makes the Medicine Go Down: Dr. Conwell's 'Feel Good' Cultural Tonic." Speaker and Gavel 27 (1989-1990): 2-10.

Jay, Paul. "Kenneth Burke: A Man of Letters." Pre/Text: A Journal of Rhetorical Theory 6.3-4 (1985): 221-33.

Jennermann, Donald L. "Some Freudian Aspects of Burke's Aristotelean Poetics." Recherches Anglaises et Americaines 12 (1979): 65-81.

Josephson, Matthew. "Experimental." Rev. of The White Oxen by Kenneth Burke. The New York Herald Tribune Books 16 November 1924: 4.

Jost, Walter. Rhetorical Investigations: Studies in Ordinary Language Criticism. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2004.

King, Andrew A. "St. Augustine's Doctrine of Participation as a Metaphysic of Persuasion." Rhetoric Society Quarterly 15.3/4 (1985): 112-15.

Klir, G. J. Architecture of Systems Problem-Solving. New York: Plenum Press, 1985.

Knox, George. Critical Moments: Kenneth Burke’s Categories and Critiques. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1957.

---. "Kenneth Burke as Literary Theorist and Critic." DAI 13.06 (1953): 351.

Levinson, Robert and Gil Fuchs. “A Pattern-Weight Formulation of Search Knowledge.” Computational Intelligence 17.4 (2001): 783-811.

Lewis, Camille. Romancing the Difference: Kenneth Burke, Bob Jones University, and the Rhetoric of Religious Fundamentalism. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2007 (forthcoming).

Lindsay, Stan A. A Concise Kenneth Burke Concordance. West Lafayette, IN: Say Press, 2004.

---. Revelation: The Human Drama. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 2000.

Melia, Trevor. Rev. of A Rhetoric of Motives by Kenneth Burke. Philosophy and Rhetoric 3 (1970): 124-27.

Moore, Mark P. "Uniting Individuals: Barry Goldwater's Rhetoric of Paradox." Journal of the Northwest Communication Association 16.1 (1988): 1-24.

Munson, Gorham. "An Amazing Debut." Rev. of The White Oxen by Kenneth Burke. The Literary Review 11 October 1924: 3.

---. "In and About the Workshop of Kenneth Burke,” in Destinations; a Canvass of American Literature since 1900. New York: J.H. Sears and Co., 1928. 139-59.

Overington, Michael A. "Kenneth Burke as Social Theorist." Sociological Inquiry 47.2 (1977): 133-41.

Pettigrew, Loyd S. "Psychoanalytic Theory: A Neglected Rhetorical Dimension." Philosophy and Rhetoric 10 (1977): 46-59.

"Psychological Drama." Rev. of The White Oxen by Kenneth Burke. The New York Times Book Review Fall 1924: 23.

Ramage, John D. Rhetoric: A User's Guide. New York: Pearson, 2006.

Rountree, Clarke. An Introduction and Index to "Conversations with Kenneth Burke". Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Department of Communication Studies, 1987.

---. Judging the Supreme Court: Constructions of Motives in Bush V. Gore. Ann Arbor: Michigan State University Press, 2007 (forthcoming).

---. "Kenneth Burke: A Personal Retrospective." The Iowa Review 17.3 (1987): 15-23.

Rueckert, William H. Encounters with Kenneth Burke. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

---. Kenneth Burke and the Drama of Human Relations. Minneapolis,: University of Minnesota Press, 1963.

---. "The Rhetoric of Rebirth: A Study of the Literary Theory and Critical Practice of Kenneth Burke." DAI 17.06 (1956): 238.

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